5 generations of computers – explained one by one
Here in this article i will tell you the 5 generations of computer. First of all you need to know what is generation? Generation is a term used to distinguish between hardware technologies. But nowadays it include both hardware and software which make up the entire system. There are totally 5 generations of computer known till today. It is very important to know all the 5 generations of computer and how they are different from each other. What is computer? A computer is an electronic device which processes raw data according to the specified instructions and produce the information as output with fast speed and accuracy. Now lets explain 5 generations of compiter one by one.
5 generations of computer one by one explained
1.First generation (1942-1955)
In first generation computer vacuum tube was used as the main component. Due to the large size of the vacuum tubes, these computers were large in size with limited memory. They also consumed a large amount of electricity so a vast amount of heat generated in these computers. ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC are some examples of these computers.
Features of first generation computer
- Vacuum tubes were used in the electronic circuitry.
- These computers were the fastest calculating device of their time.
- Slow operating speed, high electricity consumption and large heat generation was there.
- Air conditioning required.
- Continuous maintenance was required.
- Very bulky in size so unreliable and nonportable.
- Limited programming capabilities i.e. machine and assembly language.
Also see:- Input devices of computer images- best picks
2. Second generation (1955-1964)
The second generation computers used transistors in place of vacuum tubes, which was made up of semi-conductors material. The size of these computers is comparatively very small as compare to first generation computer due to the small size of transistors. The high level language was used to instruct these computers. IBM 7000 series and honeywell 200 are the examples of these computers.
Features of second generation computer
- Transistors was used in the electronic circuitry.
- Due to their small size these are more reliable and portable.
- Computational time is in microseconds.
- Frequent maintenance was required.
- Less heat generated.
- Required power to operate.
- Faster then first generation.
- High level language were used.
- Wider commercial use.
3.Third generations (1964-1975)
In this generation, integrated circuits (ICs) is used. On this clip, a very large number of components are integrated on a very small surface. Due to this , the size of this generation computers is much smaller than first two generations computers. IBM-360 series and ICL-1900 series are the examples of this generation computer.
Features of third generation computer
- Integrated circuits (ICs) were used in the electronic circuitary.
- Smaller in size.
- Increased speed and reliability.
- A very low heat generated.
- Computational time reduced to nano seconds.
- Maintenance cost is low.
- Less power requirement.
- More advanced high level language like PASCAL, FORTRAN, COBOL was used.
Also see:-Best places for technology jobs
4. Fourth generation (1975-onwards)
In this generation very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) of about 50,000 components on a single chip is used. So the size is very small for this generation computer. The examples are IBM-370 and HP 3000.
Features of fourth generation computer
- VLSI is the circuitary used.
- Smallest in size.
- Heat generated is minimum.
- Very reliable and much faster as compared to previous generations.
- No air conditioning is required.
- Minimal maintenance required because hardware failure is negligible.
- Easily portable due to small size.
- Cheapest among all generations.
5. Fifth generation (present) and future generations
The exact time of fifth generations cannot be specified but it has been started near 1989. In this generation the main emphasis is on parallel processing and artificial intelligence to make the computers intelligent like human being. Super computer and robot are the examples of this generation. In fifth generation, the VLSI technology of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic component.
Features of fifth generation and future computers
- ULSI technology.
- Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates.
- Development of true artificial.
- Development of nature language procession.
- More user friendly with multimedia features.
So these are 5 generations of computer. Fifth generation is the best among all the 5 generations of computer and we all use the fifth generation.
Historical evolution of computers
The history of computers dates back to long ,long ago, when man first used his fingers and toes as counting aids. Later, when the cane-dwellers wanted to remember how many animals they had killed in a headhunt, they would draw crude pictures on the cave walls and make regular scratches to record the number of their kills.
Here are some characteristics of computer
1. Speed:- A computer perform operations with high speed. A computer has the ability to process large volume of data and to retrieve the data in a fraction of seconds. The speed of the computer is basically measured in nanoseconds or even picoseconds.
2. Accuracy:- Computer is a very accurate device or even it can be called 100% accurate device. Computer can perform each and every calculation with the same accuracy even it may be the last instruction.
3. Versatility:- Computer is a versatility machine. Versatile means that at one time it does inventory control, at the next moment it is busy in some other work like preparing pay slips of employees and so on. So, it can perform any task at any time.
4. Diligence:- Unlike human being, the computer can work continuously without getting tired. Without the lack of concentration they help us in doing a number of jobs that require a great accuracy.
5. Reduce cost:- Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high but it substantially reduces cost of each of its transaction.
Now lets talk about some limitations of computers:-
1. Computer possess no intelligence of its own. Its I.Q. is zero at least till today. It has to be told what to do and in what sequence.
2. Computer can not learn with experience.
3. Computer have no emotion. It has no feelings because it is a machine.
4. Computer can not detect errors in the logic input to it.
5. Dependent on human beings.
6. It requires a lot of looking after.
So this all about 5 generations of computer – explained one by one. I hope you like this article and if you have any questions related to this article feel free to ask me in the comment section below.
Do subscribe my blog for latest posts…